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Glossary

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A   >top
AAP - Abbr:  Association of American Publishers / www.publishers.org
abrasion resistance - The ability of materials, such as paper, board, cloth, leather, etc., to withstand the abrading action of the same or another material, e.g., other paper, dust, a book shelf, etc. The property is usually measured in terms of rate of loss of material by weight when abraded under specified conditions and length of time.
ALA - Abbr: American Library Association / The the oldest and largest library association in the world. www.ala.org
Alkaline buffered paper - Paper containing an alkaline compund (calcium carbonate, for example) at a level sufficient to neutralize acid that might, in the future, be generated through aging of the paper or from atmospheric pollution.
ANSI - Abbr: American National Standards Institute /  Institute overseeing the creation, promulgation and use of thousands of norms and guidelines including  the ANSI/NICSO/LBI standards for Library Binding.
archival quality - Describes either a material's resistance to deterioration and loss of quality when kept in controlled conditions or storage conditions which do not cause harm or reduce life expectancy of materials
B   >top
back lining - The process of reinforcing the spine of a sewn book, after gluing-up, rounding and backing, and before covering or casing-in. The spine lining material can be a paper, cloth or a combination of the two and is applied from wide or narrow reals on equipment or by hand.  Lining the spine offers support and some rigidity while maintaining the necessary flexibility for proper opening; consequently the weight and stiffness of the spine lining material is very important. LBS offers many reinforcing options for different types of books, equipment, and binding methods. 
>Learn more about LBS Reinforcing Materials...
binding edge - The edge of a text block along which the leaves of a text block are attached by sewing, adhesive binding  or another method.
BMI - Abbr: Book Manufacturers' Institute, Inc. / A nationally recognized trade association of the book manufacturing industry. www.bmibook.org 
book block - The text block plus the endpapers and other materials added by the binder before casing in to a hard cover. 
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caliper - A method of measurement used to express the thickness of papers. LBS measures caliper in pts; 1 pt = .001".
case - A book cover consisting of two boards and an inlay covered with paper, cloth, or some other covering material. The case is made separately from the text block and is later attached to it in a step called casing in. A cased-in book is often referred to as a hard cover book.
casing in - The process of applying adhesive to the outside endpapers of a text block and fitting the text block into the case.
caseliner (inlay) - A heavy weight but flexible paper strip used to stiffen the spine of a case, centrally placed between two cover boards. LBS offers three thicknesses of kraft inlay suitable for books of different sizes and Spine Hollow, our heavy duty grey caseliner.
cross direction (CD) - The direction of a machine-made paper, which is at right angles to the machine direction , i.e., the direction across the direction in which the web travels. The cross direction of paper generally has less strength and folding endurance than the machine direction, although, in some papers, after aging, the opposite may be true. The cross direction has greater tearing resistance, and paper also expands more in the cross than in the machine direction when the moisture content of the paper increases.
D
E   >top
endsheet - Also known as endpapers and endleaf, endsheets join the book block to the cover and act as a hinge at the cover board. LBS offers over 20 different styles of endsheets designed for different methods of binding and different types of books. >Learn more about LBS Endsheets... 

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flat back (square back) - A text block that has not been rounded and backed.
fore edge - The edge of a leaf or a board opposite from, and parallel to, its binding edge (i.e., opposite from its spine edge). Fore edge is also used in a more general way to refer to any part of a volume opposite from, and parallel to, its spine.
FSC - (Forest Stewardship Council) This independent, non-governmental, non-profit organization was established to promote the responsible management of the world's forests. Products carrying the FSC label are independently certified to assure consumers that they come from forests that are managed to meet the social, economic and ecological needs of present and future generations. www.fsc.org

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grain direction - The direction in which the majority of the fibers in a piece of paper or board are aligned; and the direction in which the warp threads run in cloth. Grain direction in all man-made materials used in bookbinding should run parallel to the spine of the volume. 

H   >top

hard cover - The cover of a book produced from a flexible material, usually cloth or paper supported by rigid boards.
HBI - Abbr: Hardcover Binders International /  A division of the Library Binding Institute and a professional association that exists to advocate the highest standards in quality, longevity, and durability of hardcover bound books. www.hardcoverbinders.org
head - The top edge of a leaf, board or bound volume, opposite from the surface on which the volume rests when it is shelved upright.

I   >top

inlay (caseliner) - A heavy weight but flexible paper strip used to stiffen the spine of a case, centrally placed between two cover boards. LBS offers three thicknesses of kraft inlay suitable for books of different sizes and Spine Hollow, our heavy duty grey caseliner.
ISBN - Abbr: International Standard Book Numbering / A standard (ISO 2108) ten-digit number used to uniquely identify books. www.isbn.org
ISSN - Abbr: International Standard Serial Number / A standard (Z39.9, ISO 3297) eight-digit number used to uniquely identify serial publications, including electronic seals. www.issn.org

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joint - The grooves that run head to tail on the outside of the case, front and back, along which the boards hinge when they open.

K

L   >top

lignin - A complex polymer that makes cell walls in plants strong and rigid. Lignin left in papers made from wood pulp leads to chemical degradation. Most lignin can be removed from pulps during manufacturing. 
lining (super, mull, crash and gauze) - Cotton, muslin, gauze, crash, paper and other materials used to reinforce spines of library bound books. Lining provides the means for a firm connection between text block and cover and gives shape and firmness to the binding. LBS offers many reinforcing options for different types of books, equipment, and binding methods. >Learn more about LBS Reinforcing Materials...

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machine direction (MD) - The direction in which the greater number of the fibers of a sheet of paper tend to be oriented as a result of the forward motion of the wire of the papermaking machine. The paper so produced is stronger in the machine direction, and also experiences less dimensional variation in the machine direction due to changes in humidity. The direction at right angles to the machine direction is known as the cross direction. Also called grain or "grain direction."
mill - To cut away on a milling machine or station to prepare spines of books for double-fan adhesive binding or oversewing. The machine clamps the text block, spine down, and moves it over a series of rotating blades that cut away approximately 1/8 inch (3mm) of the binding margin, thus removing old adhesive, thread, staples, and/or folds of signatures.  After milling, a text block consists of loose leaves.  

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NASTA - Abbr: National Association of State Textbook Administrators / Developed the standards and specifications for manufacturing and textbooks in consultation with AAP and the BMI.  www.nasta.org
NISO - Abbr: National Information Standards Organization / Developed the standard for Permanence of Paper for Publications and Documents in Libraries and Archives. www.niso.org
notch / notching - Parallel grooves cut into the spine perpendicular to the binding edge. Notching increases the amount of surface area on the spine that comes in contact with the adhesive and increaes the strength of double-fan adhesive bindings. Spines of text blocks can be notched by machine prior to double-fan adhesive binding.

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outgassing (off gassing) - The release of material in the form of a vapor as a result of deterioration.

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pastedown - The side of the folded endsheet that is attached to the inside of the case when the book block is cased-in. The pastedown serves several purposes: 1) it hides the raw edges of the covering material where it is turned over the edges of the board; 2) it forms the hinge between the text block and the board or case; and 3) in edition and library binding, particularly the former. the pastedown and hinge are frequently the only means by which the text block is secured to its case. 
pH - A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of some substance. pH is measured on a scale from 0 to 14; values below 7.0 are acidic, and values above 7.0 are alkaline. A pH of 7.0 is neutral.
PUR - Abbr: polyurethane reactive / Stronger and more flexible than hot melt and PVA.
PVA - Abbr: polyvinyl acetate / A water-soluble plastic resin used as an adhesive.

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